York University
September 27, 2010

Would you be outraged if your child was exposed to violence?  Would your community consider this unacceptable? 

That’s what I thought.

Then why do we, as a society, tolerate this when it comes to homeless youth?

In 2009, Bill O’Grady and I interviewed 244 homeless youth in Toronto.  We asked them about their life on the streets and if they’d ever been a victim of crime.  What we found was astounding and we’ve documented it in our report: Surviving Crime and Violence: Street Youth Victimization in Toronto (2010).

People tend to think of homeless youth as trouble makers and delinquents; as perpetrators of crime rather than victims.  But that’s not what we found.  In reality, street youth are often the victims of violent crime.  This is mainly because of the vulnerability they face by not having a home.  To make matters worse, we found that this victimization isn’t really being addressed by the police or the courts. 

Here are some of the Key findings fromour research:

  • When young people become homeless, they are much more likely than youth with homes to be victims of crime and violence.
  • Young women in particular are much more likely to be victimized, and report high levels of sexual assault and partner abuse.
  • The younger you are, and the earlier you leave home, the more vulnerable you are to criminal victimization.
  • The solution to this problem lies in changing the way we address youth homelessness.

If the levels of violence and crime found in our study were experienced by any other group in Canada, there would be immediate public outrage and pressure for the government to take action. Street youth deserve that same level of outrage directed toward their personal safety. They deserve the same response that any other group in Canada is entitled to.

I have written about this subject before, and with this new research, I am even more convinced that our current response to youth homelessness is not working. There is no doubt that being homeless puts young people at a high risk for violence and crime, and that we should be doing anything and everything we can to give young people the safety and support they need to get off the streets.

For street youth to have an opportunity to move forward in life, they need to be safe and protected from all forms of crime. Having a roof over ones head should not be a factor here and we need to press our government to make changes so that young people who become homeless have real options.

Surviving Crime and Violence report cover
Media Folder: 


You can find the report, which includes our findings, recommendations and much more on the Homeless Hub.

Stephen Gaetz talks about street youth as victims of crime. Watch the video

Listen to Stephen's interview with CBC Metro Morning.

Surviving Crime and Violence: Street Youth Victimization in Toronto was created for Justice for Children and Youthand was written by Stephen Gaetz, Bill O’Grady and Kristy Buccieri.

Canadian Observatory on Homelessness/Homeless Hub
September 23, 2010

So here I am at the 16th Annual National Urban Aboriginal Housing Conference in Ottawa! I am excited to be here amongst the likes of Senator Art Eggleton, author of In From the Margins: A Call to Action on Poverty, Housing and Homelessness, Libby Davies, who introduced Bill C-304, an Act to ensure secure, adequate, accessible and affordable housing for Canadians, to the House of Commons, and Patrick Reid, who was featured in the award winning documentary Something to eat, a place to sleep and someone who gives a damn!

I'm here representing the CHRN in hopes of garnering support for the development of a national Aboriginal Homelessness Research Network.  This network will bring together researchers and those interested in research related to homelessness and Aboriginal populations. The objectives are to:

a) create stronger connections between researchers and those who use research;

b) build research capacity in the area of Aboriginal homelessness;

c) strengthen the network for the dissemination of research in Aboriginal communities; and

d) create conditions whereby research on Aboriginal homelessness contributes to solutions to homelessness.

There are many people all over the world researching, writing and producing knowledge on homelessness and poverty-related issues. There is also a growing body of research in Canada and elsewhere that focuses on homelessness from the perspectives of Aboriginal populations. However, this research is often difficult to find, and one could argue that the links between the researchers and those who use the research are fairly weak.

Given the profound impact homelessness has on Aboriginal communities, it's important that we find ways to develop the capacity of Aboriginal researchers, students, and leaders to frame the questions around research needs, policy development and systematic responses to homelessness within these communities. These responses must be relevant and meaningful, and provide effective solutions to ending the pervasive homelessness which exists throughout the country for many Aboriginal communities.

It's thus the goal of the CHRN to enhance the efforts of individuals, institutions and networks engaged in Aboriginal homelessness and housing research through increasing institutional support for collaboration, and by providing opportunities to create new linkages and activities. 

As I said, I am very excited to be here, as I've already mobilized interest from folks at the Canadian Aboriginal AIDS Network, the National Aboriginal Health Organization and the Mental Health Commission of Canada.  I'm confident interest will only grow as the days wear on!

If you are interested in being part of a national Aboriginal Homelessness Research Network and want to help set the agenda, please feel free to be in touch: amarsolais@edu.yorku.ca




When you hear the word “homelessness,” what comes to mind? If you are like most people, you probably think of the men who sleep on the hot-air grates in downtown Toronto. That is the image that so often accompanies media stories about homelessness.

Several things about that image hide the reality of homelessness for many Canadians. The first part is the person’s gender and age. There are many homeless women and children too, although in their case it seldom takes the form of sleeping on the street. That is another problem with the image – it equates homelessness with street life. In reality, homelessness can take multiple forms, including moving from shelter to shelter or “couch-surfing” (that is, staying with friends when one loses one’s own home).

The image usually features a solitary figure, which obscures the fact that entire families may become homeless. Indeed, some of those who appear to be alone may simply be separated from their families by homelessness. Finally, the setting (downtown in a big city) is a cliché. Homelessness exists in towns and cities of all sizes, in the suburbs and in rural areas, and in all the provinces of Canada.

Last year, I helped edit an online book collecting the best Canadian research available on homelessness. The thirty chapters encompassed the experiences of women and their children, Aboriginal people, frail seniors, youth, immigrants (some of whom become homeless shortly after arriving in Canada). They included research on food insecurity, social stigma, moneymaking strategies, child custody, the physical and mental health problems of homeless people, and the intersection of homelessness and crime, as well as promising efforts to reduce homelessness or alleviate some of its effects.

Did we cover the full spectrum of the problem? Not even close. This week we added another ten chapters to fill the many gaps.

One important new chapter is about homelessness among women in Canada’s North, a particularly urgent issue. Yukon, Northwest Territories, and Nunavut share a high cost of living, limited employment opportunities, underdeveloped infrastructure, and a shortage of social services. Women who lose their housing have few places to turn. Yet we hear very little about their plight in the rest of Canada.

Another chapter deals with homelessness among Aboriginal peoples in the Prairie provinces. This group spends a lot of time on the move, and many go back and forth between urban centres that offer work, services, and a wider range of housing options, and their home communities, which offer a connection to family and traditions. Yet in neither place are these people completely at home.

A third chapter looks at homeless women in small cities and towns in Ontario, social isolation, low-quality social services, and weak public transit infrastructure create barriers to seeking help.

We also consider the ethics of research into homelessness. It is important to understand and communicate the experiences of people who often have no voice in society, but it is equally important not to appropriate their voices. Many of the chapters contain the words of homeless people, men and women, young and old, describing their stories and tryng to make sense of an arduous life in a hostile world.

In presenting these diverse perspectives on homelessness, we hope to remind Canadians that homeless has not disappeared, even though the recent economic downturn has meant that many people are too worried about their own futures to pay attention to the plight of those even less fortunate.

At the same time, we stress that although homelessness affects a diverse group of people, it is not a complex problem. Yes, you read that correctly: it is not a complex problem.

After all these years of research and policy analysis and documenting the lived experience of those affected and those who provide support services, we know what the causes of the problem are. That means we know what the solutions are.

When individuals or families run into serious difficulty in one or more of the three key areas that support a decent standard of living, they may find themselves unhoused and potentially on a downward spiral. The three areas are: housing, income, and support services. Groups already facing inequities, discrimination, and violence are often the first to face difficulties in these areas when the economic tide changes.

An adequate standard of living means not only that good-quality health care is available to everyone, but also access to adequate housing, employment at a living wage, and essential support services must also be available for everyone, not just those who can afford them – and that systemic inequities are addressed in social policy.

We know what we need. We need social protections that prevent people from becoming unhoused. We need programs that ensure that no one will be unhoused for more than a very brief period should a crisis of some sort arise. We need policies that correct historic and systemic inequities, and that provide adequate, affordable and secure housing, an adequate income or income support when needed, and adequate support services if these are required (for addictions, mental health, and so on). Only then will we begin to solve the problem of homelessness.

J. David Hulchanski is Associate Director, Research, for the Cities Centre and Professor in the Faculty of Social Work at the University of Toronto, and co-editor of an electronic book on homelessness, Finding Home, available on the Homeless Hub, www.homelesshub.ca/FindingHome.


Calgary Homeless Foundation
August 23, 2010

Just when I think I've got a debate resolved in my head, new research comes along and makes me think again. I'd like to put a question to blog readers... Last year, I wrote

Last year, I wrote a policy paper on the Housing First model of rapid rehousing of the homeless.

In the paper, I argue that the Housing First model, unlike the "treatment first" model, does not require homeless people to go through a transition to "housing readiness" (i.e. learning money-management skills, learning life skills, following the treatment plan of a psychiatrist, etc.).  Instead, the Housing First approach provides homeless persons with almost immediate access to permanent housing.

In the paper, I also argue that the academic literature on Housing First is very positive, demonstrating that Housing First appears to work very well for up to 90 percent of people it tries to house.

Moreover, I argue in the paper that in just a one-year span in the lead-up to the publication of my paper, staff from Toronto's Housing First program (known as "Streets to Homes," or S2H for short) had travelled to 23 different Canadian cities to discuss the program with local officials.

Furthermore, Regina, Ottawa, Grand Prairie, Lethbridge, Calgary and Edmonton had all sent contingents of staff to Toronto to learn from S2H officials.

Finally, Lethbridge, Sudbury, Ottawa and London already have Housing First programs in place, and Edmonton and Victoria expected to have Housing Fierst programs in place in the very near future.

In short, while homelessness policy wonks had spent decades debating whether homeless persons could in fact be housed, the debate now appears to be over.  Indeed, it now seems rather clear to most that, provided there's a suitable affordable housing unit for the person to go to (and that is not always the case in Housing First programs, as I argue in Section 5.2 of my paper), we now accept that the problem of homelessness can best be solved by providing housing to the homeless as quickly as possible.

No more policy conundrum, right?

Enter a new report that I recently discovered while perusing the Homeless Hub.  In said report, four researchers (Adam Fair, Hollis Moore, Jennifer Robson and Barb Gosse) report on results from the Independent Living Account (ILA) project of Social Enterprise Development Innovations (SEDI).  According to the report, ILA assists "residents of Toronto shelter system to save, build life skills and subsequently move into their own place."

According to the new report

"The ILA model was designed to test the effectiveness of matched saving incentives in supporting individuals living in the shelter system to save for expenses related to moving out on their own. Participants enrolled in the ILA are provided with assistance to open a bank account and start saving. To incentivize this saving, SEDI offered a virtual $3 in match credits for each $1 saved, up to a maximum personal savings of $400. Participants are also required to work with a case manager on a savings plan and attend a financial literacy workshop which lasts approximately 12 hours. If a participant meets all of the program requirements they are eligible to use their credits, combined with their own savings, to pay for first and last month’s rent, utility hook up, moving expenses as well as supports to employment."

The report goes on to say

"The results suggest a conservative estimate of a $2.19 return for each $1 of project costs within the first year following project graduation. It is also worth noting that the analysis of the base case (existing environment) estimates a negative return of nearly -$0.74 for each $1 invested in the current system of support for those moving through the housing continuum to exit homelessness. This result clearly illustrates the investment potential created by the ILA model."

While I don't see a direct contradiction between Housing First and the ILA approach, I do see an inconsistency.

I believe it was Confucius who said "Give a man a fish and he will eat for a day. Teach a man to fish and he will eat for a lifetime."

Housing First says:

  1. give homeless persons keys to housing unit ASAP; and
  2. have Housing First staff work with the person's income support office to cut out the bureaucratic red tape so that the person can move right into housing ASAP.  In other words: give the man the fish and, no disrespect intended to Confucius, but he'll keep fishin'.

The ILA approach says:

  1. teach the homeless person financial literacy skills with some matching funds/incentives; and 
  2. when they put aside sufficient money, they can move into a new unit.  In other words, teach the man to fish.

So, my question for blog readers is: how do we reconcile the successes of Housing First with the successes of the ILA project?


Nick Falvo is a doctoral candidate at Carleton University’s School of Public Policy and Administration and teaches a course on affordable housing and homelessness in Carleton’s School of Social Work. His research interests include poverty, affordable housing, social assistance, homelessness and post-secondary education policy. Under the supervision of Dr. Frances Abele, he is currently involved in two SSHRC-funded research projects looking at poverty and affordable housing in Canada’s North. And his doctoral dissertation, under the supervision of Dr. Saul Schwartz, consists of three essays on social assistance. Nick is a frequent blogger and op-ed writer, a steering committee member of the Progressive Economics Forum (PEF) and the PEF Events Coordinator for the Annual Conference of the Canadian Economics Association. Prior to his doctoral studies, Nick was a Parliamentary Intern in Ottawa, and then worked for 10 years as a community social worker with homeless persons in Toronto. Contact him at falvo.nicholas@gmail.com

University of Toronto/ St.Michael's Hospital
August 17, 2010

Are Canadians who are experiencing homelessness getting the health care that they need?  The average person might assume that the answer to this question must be “yes,” because Canada has a system of universal health insurance.  In fact, almost all previous studies of unmet needs for health care among homeless people have been done in the US, where more than half of people who are homeless do not have any health insurance. These studies have (not surprisingly) found that lack of health insurance greatly increases the risk of unmet needs for care.  Amazingly, almost no studies have looked at this issue in countries that ensure that its citizens and residents have universal health insurance.

We recently published a study in the American Journal of Public Health that looked at unmet needs for health care among homeless people in Toronto, Canada.  We surveyed a representative sample of 1169 homeless individuals at shelters and meal programs and asked them if within the last year they had needed health care but been unable to get it.  Fully 17% of homeless individuals -- about one in six – reported unmet needs for care.  Mothers with children who were living in family shelters were more than twice as likely to have unmet needs for care than the average mother with children living in Toronto.  Among the homeless people that we interviewed, those who were younger and those who had been a victim of physical assault in the past year were more likely to have unmet needs.

These findings show us that homeless people still have substantial unmet health care needs within Canada’s system of universal health insurance.  However, it’s important to realize two things.  First, this finding should not be misinterpreted to mean that our system of universal health insurance is “broken” or “doesn’t work.”  In fact, another recent study asked almost the same question that we did of homeless people across the US and found that 32% had been unable to obtain needed medical or surgical care in the past year.  So, the rate of unmet needs among homeless people in the Canadian system is about half that of homeless people in the US.  Universal health insurance works! 

Second, our study underscores the importance of understanding the difference between a health insurance system and a health care delivery system.  When people are disadvantaged and marginalized, it’s not enough to say that that their health care will be paid for, so there’s nothing to worry about.  We need to realize that there can be many other barriers to obtaining needed care, such as not having a family physician, not having transportation to the clinic or doctor’s office, not understanding when it’s important to seek health care, or being reluctant to seek care because of previous bad experiences with health care providers.  All of these factors, and more, come into play when a person is homeless.

We need to continue to design health care delivery systems that meet the needs of people who are homeless.  Some of the most promising strategies include having teams of health care providers work in outreach settings such as shelters, drop-in centres, and mobile health units; enhancing the capacity of our many outstanding community health centres to provide comprehensive care for homeless patients; integrating the delivery of care for physical health, mental health, and addictions; and educating and empowering individuals who are homeless to help improve their own health.


Stephen Hwang's primary appointment is in the Department of Medicine at the University of Toronto, with cross-appointments in the Departments of Public Health Sciences and Health Policy, Management and Evaluation. His research focuses on deepening our understanding of the relationship between homelessness, housing, and health through epidemiologic studies, health services research, and longitudinal cohort studies. His current research projects include a study of predictors of health care utilization in a representative sample of 1,200 homeless men, women, and families in Toronto, a study of the barriers to the management of chronic pain among homeless people, and an evaluation of the effects of a supportive housing program on health and health care utilization among homeless and hard-to-house individuals.


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