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RESOURCE TYPE: Research Summary
PUBLICATION DATE: 2014

This research examines Canada’s responses to youth homelessness. Unlike the United Kingdom, Australia and even the United States, which look at youth homelessness as an issue separate and distinct from adult homelessness, Canada is lagging behind and tends to create “homelessness junior” services. The research, responses and programs that the author evaluates and examines in this report show that there are innovative and unique ways of...

RESOURCE TYPE: Research Summary
PUBLICATION DATE: 2013

Homelessness can increase the risk of injection drug use amongst youth. This means that interventions that address housing may also reduce high-risk drug use behaviours. Programs that address risks associated with drug use are also necessary in order to limit exposure and likelihood of injection drug use and other high-risk behaviours.

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RESOURCE TYPE: Research Summary
PUBLICATION DATE: 2004

Based on research by Chris Chamberlain of the AHURI RMIT-NATSEM Research Centre and David MacKenzie of the AHURI Swinburne-Monash Research Centre. This study examines the main causes of, and pathways into, homelessness for school students.

RESOURCE TYPE: Research Summary
PUBLICATION DATE: 2006

"Not In My Back Yard" (NIMBY) is a phenomenon by which residents of a community adopt protectionist attitudes and oppositional tactics to prevent an unwelcome project from developing in their neighbourhood. To investigate this issue, 46 case studies were developed for a variety of projects across Canada, including, amongst others, homeless shelters, supported housing, and transitional and long-term affordable housing. By revealing specific...

RESOURCE TYPE: Research Summary
PUBLICATION DATE: 2005

This study examines how social housing providers accommodate homeless applicants and explores ways in which access to housing could be improved for homeless people. Interviews were conducted with a diverse set of twenty social housing providers from four provinces, serving a range of target populations. Numerous systemic, organizational and individual barriers which homeless people face when accessing social housing are identified and...

RESOURCE TYPE: Research Summary
PUBLICATION DATE: 2003

The study examined causes of family homelessness in 10 major Canadian centers, with all but one reporting it to be a growing problem. Homeless families are a diverse group, but the most overwhelming common thread was that 80% of the families studied were headed by young single mothers between the ages of 26 and 29. Solutions must address the root causes of the problem, which are primarily a lack of affordable housing, inadequate incomes and...

RESOURCE TYPE: Research Summary
PUBLICATION DATE: 2013

The stigma and criminalization associated with illicit drug use is increased for people living in poverty, impacting health and acting as a barrier to accessing care. Negative experiences in hospitals can lead people to avoid seeking care and, if admitted, to leave before their care is complete. This CARBC research bulletin addresses the concept of cultural safety which has been used to guide nursing practice in ways that counteract the...

RESOURCE TYPE: Research Summary
PUBLICATION DATE: 2013

Experiences of homelessness differ depending on the individual. The stories heard in this research do not support the stereotype that homelessness is an individual problem. There is a need for more services in accessible areas, as well as safe and affordable housing. Providing adequate services can restore dignity and a sense of citizenship.

Homelessness in the Suburbs...

RESOURCE TYPE: Research Summary
PUBLICATION DATE: 2013

Those who are experiencing episodic and longer-term homelessness represent a small number of shelter users who use the majority of shelter beds. Programs and policies need to be developed to support these groups.

Identifying the Patterns of Emergency Shelter Stays of Single Individuals in Canadian Cities of Different Sizes...

RESOURCE TYPE: Research Summary
PUBLICATION DATE: 2013

The media and public often say that many migrant and new immigrant or indoor sex workers started sex work before age 18, despite evidence to the contrary. We actually know little about women who start sex work before age 18, and whether this increases HIV risk and arrest when they become adults.

RESOURCE TYPE: Research Summary
PUBLICATION DATE: 2013

LGBTQ youth prefer receiving services at schools, community centres and LGBTQ specific agencies. There is no ‘one size fits all’ youth program for LGBTQ youth. Youth require varied services and safe settings to account for the different needs of youth in the LGBTQ community.

Social services for sexual minority...

RESOURCE TYPE: Research Summary
PUBLICATION DATE: 2011

Household food insecurity is an extensive problem in North America, affecting 8% of Canadian households in 2007/08. The key predictors of household food insecurity are low income and reliance on government assistance.  Numerous calls for responses to food insecurity have drawn attention to housing affordability as an important factor. Housing is considered to be affordable if 30% or less of gross household income is spent on shelter and...

RESOURCE TYPE: Research Summary
PUBLICATION DATE: 2013

Youth’s social environments affect their experience with heavy drinking. This varies between black and white youth. However, youth that have at least four people in their immediate social network who are students are less likely to drink.

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RESOURCE TYPE: Research Summary
PUBLICATION DATE: 2013

Suicide rates for street-involved and homeless youth are higher than the general youth population. Previous research has focused on the risk factors that increase suicide attempts and suicidal ideation (thoughts) among street youth. These include current and past experiences with unstable housing, victimization, depression, and substance abuse. This study considers the impact these factors may cause on both suicide attempts and suicidal...

RESOURCE TYPE: Research Summary
PUBLICATION DATE: 2013

Youth reported learning about HIV and hepatitis in both nurse-run and arts messaging formatted programs. Youth responded more positively to the nurse led program, learned more and reported that it had a more positive impact on their lives.

Impact of Nursing Intervention on Improving HIV, Hepatitis Knowledge and Mental Health Among...

RESOURCE TYPE: Research Summary
PUBLICATION DATE: 2013

People who are experiencing homelessness have a larger chance of being exposed to Hepatitis B or C. A large percent may not be aware that they have the virus. This poses a danger to themselves and others. Case management has been successful in making sure people are aware of their exposure.

Impact of Hepatitis B and C...

RESOURCE TYPE: Research Summary
PUBLICATION DATE: 2013

Those who are homeless in Toronto have significantly higher than average death rates. They are 29 times more likely to have hepatitis C. They are also more likely to have heart disease, cancer and diabetes. Those experiencing homelessness have less access to healthcare. Over 50% reported not having a family doctor. The realities of increased illness, lack of treatment and lack of access also affects their ability to access end of life...

RESOURCE TYPE: Research Summary
PUBLICATION DATE: 2013

Those who are homeless have a higher chance of getting hepatitis B virus (HBV). Throughout the United States there is an average of 2.9 out of 100,000 cases of HBV. A study made up of those who are homeless and have a mental illness or use substances found 32.5% tested positive for HBV. Hepatitis B can be prevented through a course of 3 doses of a vaccine. These must be administered at intervals within a 6 month period. The period and number...

RESOURCE TYPE: Research Summary
PUBLICATION DATE: 2013

Deaths among homeless people occur at higher than average rates. This is partly due to higher rates of AIDS, cancer and hepatitis and also due to lack of access to regular healthcare services. Homeless people in Canada are entitled to public healthcare services; however, they can often be hard to access. There are barriers that prevent treatment, follow up and compliance with treatment.

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RESOURCE TYPE: Research Summary
PUBLICATION DATE: 2013

The National Center for Homeless Education provides an annual summary of research on an emerging topic related to educating homeless and highly mobile students. The 2012 research summary, regarding academic resilience in homeless students, prompted readers to ask for more effective strategies to assist students in the classroom. In response to these requests, peer-reviewed research conducted between 2002 and 2013 was examined, cross-...

RESOURCE TYPE: Research Summary
PUBLICATION DATE: 2013

The National Center for Homeless Education provides an annual summary of research on an emerging topic related to educating homeless and highly mobile students. The 2012 research summary, regarding academic resilience in homeless students, prompted readers to ask for more effective strategies to assist students in the classroom. In response to these requests, peer-reviewed research conducted between 2002 and 2013 was examined, cross-...

RESOURCE TYPE: Research Summary
PUBLICATION DATE: 2013

Youth and adults who are experiencing homelessness connected quality of life to feelings of respect and acceptance. Those experiencing homelessness frequently do not feel like they have full citizenship within society. This is partly due to media and advertising portrayals that reproduce negative stereotypes of homelessness.

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RESOURCE TYPE: Research Summary
PUBLICATION DATE: 2013

Young women who are experiencing homelessness are eager to re-engage with school. This is most likely to occur when there are a range of supports available to them by agencies and when school staff provides long-term support. Efforts to increase access to education for girls who have lived on the street must take into account the need for learning approaches that validate their life experience.

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RESOURCE TYPE: Research Summary
PUBLICATION DATE: 2013

Many thousands of Canadians experience homelessness each year. Recent estimates suggest that between 44% and 60% of homeless people have used illicit drugs in their lifetime. Homeless people tend to die younger than the housed population and tend to have complex end-of-life needs. This is partly due to illicit drug use and associated physical health problems. Accessing health care is a difficult task for homeless individuals who use illicit...

RESOURCE TYPE: Research Summary
PUBLICATION DATE: 2013

Street-involved and homeless youth experience more health problems than non-homeless youth, and particularly high rates of addiction and mental health problems. Despite this, use of available substance use and mental health services tends to be low among street-involved youth. This lack of service access may worsen already poor health and contribute to chronic homelessness. There is currently little understanding on the implications of co-...

RESOURCE TYPE: Research Summary
PUBLICATION DATE: 2013

The economic boom that occurred in Alberta in the mid-2000s drew people to the city of Calgary, putting greater pressure on affordable housing and social services, and increased the number of youth on the streets. The number of homeless people in Calgary went up 32% between 2004 and 2006, and the youth homeless population grew at an even faster rate than the adult homeless population. For youth and health service providers in Calgary, the...

RESOURCE TYPE: Research Summary
PUBLICATION DATE: 2013

It is widely known that mental health challenges are common in youth who are street-involved, and include depression, hopelessness, self-harm, as well as issues with substance use. There is also a clear relationship between the stress of homelessness and emotional distress, such as depression and suicide. Futhermore, the mental health challenges of street-involved youth may interfere with their ability to access services to improve their...

RESOURCE TYPE: Research Summary
PUBLICATION DATE: 2013

Many jurisdictions in Canada and the United States have responded to the growing visibility of homelessness with measures that have sought to restrict the rights of homeless people to occupy and inhabit public spaces such as street corners and parks, and prohibit behaviours such as sleeping in public or earning money through begging or squeegee cleaning. This serves as the basis for what has come to be known as the criminalization of...

RESOURCE TYPE: Research Summary
PUBLICATION DATE: 2013

The primary goal of most harm-reduction approaches is to meet individuals where they are at and not ignore or condemn the harmful behaviours, but rather to work with the individual or community to minimize the harmful effects of a given behaviour. Canadian policy on substance use has been moving in the wrong direction since its 2007 National Anti-Drug strategy, which excluded harm reduction. Harm reduction is an important public health...

RESOURCE TYPE: Research Summary
PUBLICATION DATE: 2013

Immigrants have become a major presence in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA), with some estimates suggesting approximately 50% of Toronto residents are now foreign born. It is important to understand their needs, particularly as immigrants are more likely to be vulnerable to housing insecurity and homelessness compared to those born in Canada. In addition, some research has shown that homeless youth from minority groups may be more reluctant...

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