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RESOURCE TYPE: Book/E-Book Chapter
PUBLICATION DATE: 2018
A YOUTH PERSPECTIVE

Being homeless is stressful. It’s 24 hours a day. Even if you experience a good week or month, there is always an underlying and pervasive feeling of instability, that everything around you is temporary. Despite the positive things you experience, there is still a strong fear that you will lose everything you have gained or relapse into homelessness. As a young person who has experienced homelessness and a...

RESOURCE TYPE: Book/E-Book Chapter
PUBLICATION DATE: 2018

Evaluation research involves gathering a wide variety of indicators in order to better understand how a program is operating, its impact, and what can be done to improve it. The performance indicators that many organizations collect routinely as part of their daily operations can provide important information for a program evaluation (e.g., attendance, client demographics), but are not themselves considered evaluation research. Evaluation...

RESOURCE TYPE: Book/E-Book Chapter
PUBLICATION DATE: 2018

In almost all communities in North America, the number of youth experiencing homelessness exceeds the capacity of the housing resources available to them. This situation leaves communities with the predicament of trying to decide who to prioritize for the precious few spots available in housing programs. For adults, this same dynamic exists and many communities have turned to vulnerability assessment tools to help them make these difficult...

RESOURCE TYPE: Book/E-Book Chapter
PUBLICATION DATE: 2018
RESOURCE TYPE: Book/E-Book Chapter
PUBLICATION DATE: 2018

“Street children” are an underprivileged group that is visible in public places of urban areas in developing countries. These children engage in informal economic activities to make a living for themselves and their families. They are found in every corner of the globe, but are more visible in developing countries in Africa, South Asia, and parts of Latin America (Thomas de Benítez, 2011). There is debate about the size of this population,...

RESOURCE TYPE: Book/E-Book Chapter
PUBLICATION DATE: 2018

After decades of fragmentation within the community-based child and youth mental health sector, there is an emerging trend and understanding of how cross-sectoral partnerships and integration between organizations can improve mental health outcomes for children, youth, and young adults. This chapter describes the benefits of these partnerships and key considerations in developing them. It also presents a case study of a successful partnership...

RESOURCE TYPE: Book/E-Book Chapter
PUBLICATION DATE: 2018

Each year, 1.5 million to 3 million youth in the United States experience homelessness1 (Toro, Lesperance, & Braciszewski, 2011). They are considered to be one of the most marginalized groups in the country. Among the many challenges they face are acquiring health care, employment, and stable housing. It is becoming increasingly important to consider how to use information and communication technologies (ICT) to increase service...

RESOURCE TYPE: Book/E-Book Chapter
PUBLICATION DATE: 2018

Across contexts, peer workers and peer mentors are becoming an increasingly important resource in delivering youth-focused programming for young people who are homeless or street involved. Peer work has been established across a number of practice areas, including public health, addictions, education, and community-based research. The most considerable development in the role has been within the mental health sector, where peer work is...

RESOURCE TYPE: Book/E-Book Chapter
PUBLICATION DATE: 2018

 Beautiful trouble makers who remember, resist and reimagine. 

—Min Sook Lee, OCAD University, Art and Social Change 

Offering Crys a ride “home” after a jewelry-making workshop led me to a makeshift “shanty town” under the Bathurst Street bridge in Toronto. I was struck by the vivid colour and detail in this woven compilation of blankets,...

RESOURCE TYPE: Book/E-Book Chapter
PUBLICATION DATE: 2018

More than two million youth in the United States are homeless at some time each year (Whitbeck, 2009). They often have histories of depression, complex trauma, substance abuse, and physical and sexual abuse—all of which make obtaining and maintaining competitive employment difficult. Epidemiologic data indicate that 26% meet the clinical criteria for major depression, 35% have attempted suicide, and 72% use illegal substances to cope (...

RESOURCE TYPE: Book/E-Book Chapter
PUBLICATION DATE: 2018

Much of what is known about youth who are homeless is obtained from those engaged through service programs, such as drop-in centres or shelters. This means that much less is known about youth experiencing homelessness who are not engaged in services as they are excluded from most studies. This is a significant concern because some reports indicate that youth who are not connected to services represent the majority of youth who are...

RESOURCE TYPE: Book/E-Book Chapter
PUBLICATION DATE: 2018

It is well established that youth experiencing homelessness face many challenges with their mental health. For example, a literature review of the topic found that 30%–40% of youth who are homeless experience major depression, bipolar disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and substance use (Kidd, 2013). A small number also experience psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia, although this incidence is believed to be larger than that...

RESOURCE TYPE: Book/E-Book Chapter
PUBLICATION DATE: 2018

According to many Canadian surveys and studies, workplace stress is a serious health and economic burden, with estimated costs between $3.2 billion and $11.7 billion per year (Hassard et al., 2014; Mental Health Commission of Canada, 2010). Employees who experience high workplace demands, low control, high effort, and low reward are more likely to suffer adverse consequences of a psychologically unsafe workplace (Great West Life Centre for...

RESOURCE TYPE: Book/E-Book Chapter
PUBLICATION DATE: 2018
RESOURCE TYPE: Book/E-Book Chapter
PUBLICATION DATE: 2018

Young people who are homeless experience converging and amplified risk due to their developmental stage, as well as the stress, risk behaviours, and associated trauma that often accompany becoming or being homeless. They tend to be immersed in environments characterized by multiple adversities over their lifetime and it is generally agreed that the mental health of these youth is poorer than that of youth who are housed. Most youth report that...

RESOURCE TYPE: Book/E-Book Chapter
PUBLICATION DATE: 2018

The majority of families that are homeless are headed by single mothers who have an average of two young children in their care. These mothers are especially vulnerable
because they struggle to meet the basic needs of their children and themselves. In addition to the stress of homelessness, they also often struggle with substance use, and physical and mental health problems (Slesnick, Glassman, Katafiasz, & Collins, 2012). Moreover,...

RESOURCE TYPE: Book/E-Book Chapter
PUBLICATION DATE: 2018

People of African descent have a long, troubled, yet inspiring history in Canada, marked by tensions between anti-black racism and resistance, and by the establishment of a dynamic and diverse diaspora. In this chapter, we discuss how race and racism influence the experiences of street involvement and mental health among African Canadian youth. We also offer a few analytical and practical tools for practitioners to consider for engaging...

RESOURCE TYPE: Book/E-Book Chapter
PUBLICATION DATE: 2018

There is a growing body of literature on homelessness in Canada, with research addressing such areas as youth at risk of homelessness, homelessness among adults and families, and homelessness among immigrants and refugees. Low-income groups are most likely to experience housing issues and homelessness, with visible minorities, recent immigrants, and single parents disproportionately represented (Polanyi et al., 2016). The national At Home /...

RESOURCE TYPE: Book/E-Book Chapter
PUBLICATION DATE: 2018

Indigenous peoples is a term used in Canada to describe three distinct cultural groups: First Nations (status and non-status Indians), Métis, and Inuit. There are approximately 1.4 million Indigenous people in Canada, representing about 4% of the country’s total population (Statistics Canada, 2009). Over 40% are under age 24, and 28% are under 14 (Statistics Canada, 2013). The Indigenous population has become highly urbanized. Since the 1970s...

RESOURCE TYPE: Book/E-Book Chapter
PUBLICATION DATE: 2018
RESOURCE TYPE: Book/E-Book Chapter
PUBLICATION DATE: 2018

Youth who are under-housed or street involved can experience crises that include injury by violence, aggressive behaviours, and thoughts of suicide. These crises can be challenging and frightening not only for the youth experiencing them, but also for service providers who work with these young people. Using a strength-based approach during a crisis helps youth develop personal agency. Personal agency refers to the sense of having control...

RESOURCE TYPE: Book/E-Book Chapter
PUBLICATION DATE: 2018

Adolescents who access shelters have usually experienced high levels of family conflict and a lack of family support (Ferguson, 2009; Tyler, 2006). Their home environments are often characterized by instability, including a lack of parental protection, chaos in the household, and substance use among family members. Moreover, these adolescents often experience maltreatment, including verbal, physical, and sexual abuse, as well as emotional...

RESOURCE TYPE: Book/E-Book Chapter
PUBLICATION DATE: 2018

Youth homelessness is a major public health problem that garnered increased interest and focus in recent years in Canada and the United States. The connections between youth homelessness and child welfare, foster care, and juvenile justice have been well established (Bender, Yang, Ferguson, & Thompson, 2015; Dworsky & Courtney, 2009; Zlotnick, 2009). Similarly, service providers and policy makers have become aware of the high rates of...

RESOURCE TYPE: Book/E-Book Chapter
PUBLICATION DATE: 2018

Mindfulness involves bringing attention to what is happening within us and around us in moment-to-moment experiences, without labelling experiences as good versus bad, and refraining from reviewing the past or planning for the future (Kabat-Zinn, 1994). Mindfulness practice is found to be an effective approach for improving well-being among adults, with increasing support for its use in enhancing regulatory capacities among vulnerable youth...

RESOURCE TYPE: Book/E-Book Chapter
PUBLICATION DATE: 2018

At this year’s Canadian Alliance to End Homelessness conference, I had the good fortune to hear Jesse Thistle’s remarkable story about growing up in Brampton, Ontario, and his search to find meaning for himself and come to terms with the trauma of his family. Jesse is 40 years old and of Métis/Cree/Scots descent. His work as a historian and advocate around issues of Indigenous People’s intergenerational trauma has earned him the highly...

RESOURCE TYPE: Book/E-Book Chapter
PUBLICATION DATE: 2018

The book contains four sections covering a range of topics that service providers inquire about most often. Part 1: Approaches and Interventions describes specific approaches to addressing the mental health and substance use challenges of youth experiencing homelessness. Topics include the community reinforcement approach and motivational enhancement therapy, dialectical behaviour therapy, mindfulness approaches, trauma-informed care,...

RESOURCE TYPE: Book/E-Book Chapter
PUBLICATION DATE: 2018
RESOURCE TYPE: Book/E-Book Chapter
PUBLICATION DATE: 2018

The relationship between mental health, substance use, and homelessness is complex. An estimated 48%–98% of youth who are homeless meet criteria for at least one mental health diagnosis (Hodgson, Shelton, van den Bree, & Los, 2013). Common disorders include depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, posttraumatic stress disorder, psychosis, substance use disorders, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (Hodgson et al., 2013). Between...

RESOURCE TYPE: Book/E-Book Chapter
PUBLICATION DATE: 2017

The chapter takes a two-pronged approach to discuss property in land as a human right. (1) An approach informed by legal positivism helps collect human rights clearly pertaining to property relations. In this sense, human rights are UN-sponsored human rights. The golden rule of property as a human right comprises several essential elements: the right not to be owned (abolition of slavery; prohibition of forced marriages), the right to own...

RESOURCE TYPE: Book/E-Book Chapter
PUBLICATION DATE: 2017

Biphobia

Feelings of rage, hate and disapproval toward bisexuality and bisexual people. Biphobia can be manifested in numerous ways, such as verbally, emotionally and through physical attacks.

Cisgender

When a person’s gender identity matches with their body and sex assigned at birth.

Cissexism

The belief that transgender people are inherently inferior...

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