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RESOURCE TYPE: Book/E-Book Chapter
PUBLICATION DATE: 2016

In the early 1990s Canada’s national media trained its investigative lens on poor reserve-housing conditions, exposing the depth of what was then described as a crisis. This did not provoke Ottawa’s effective response even if the heightened attention did prompt First Nations and Aboriginal leaders to greater levels of political advocacy, which improved public awareness leading Canada’s Auditor General to study the issue in 2003.¹...

RESOURCE TYPE: Book/E-Book Chapter
PUBLICATION DATE: 2016

This chapter describes the results of an international review of the Finnish National Homelessness Strategy, covering the Paavo I and Paavo II programs, which took place between 2008–2011 and 2012–2015. The strategy focused heavily on long-term homelessness, with targets to halve levels by 2011 and to eliminate long-term homelessness by 2015. Since first identifying homelessness as a social problem in the 1980s, Finland had already succeeded...

RESOURCE TYPE: Book/E-Book Chapter
PUBLICATION DATE: 2016

Homelessness is a systemic public policy problem, involving numerous sectors, institutions and agencies and therefore requires integrated system responses in terms of governance and policy. This chapter responds to the need for a conceptual framework to understand and guide efforts towards system planning and integration from a governance and policy perspective. An integrated ‘system’ is characterized by a coordinated set of policies and...

RESOURCE TYPE: Book/E-Book Chapter
PUBLICATION DATE: 2016
RESOURCE TYPE: Book/E-Book Chapter
PUBLICATION DATE: 2016

Homelessness in Canada has been on the rise since the 1980s. In 2006, the United Nations Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights made a number of recommendations for the federal, provincial and territorial governments of Canada to address homelessness and inadequate housing as a “national emergency”(United Nations, 2006). Research has repeatedly found that individuals with addictions and mental illnesses are overrepresented among...

RESOURCE TYPE: Book/E-Book Chapter
PUBLICATION DATE: 2016

The range of experiences and differing needs among specific homeless subgroups is not well understood. This is especially true for Canadian veterans – a subpopulation gaining increasing recognition among homeless communities across Canada. The Canadian Model for Housing and Support for Veterans Experiencing Homelessness commenced in 2012 as a project to generate knowledge and to test housing-with-support strategies for addressing homelessness...

RESOURCE TYPE: Book/E-Book Chapter
PUBLICATION DATE: 2016

Modern advancements in travel have led to an unprecedented number of pandemic outbreaks in recent years. As a global city, Toronto has been particularly affected by events such as SARS and H1N1. It is well documented that some individuals fare better than others in these kinds of crises, and that vulnerability is often rooted in pre-existing social inequities. Among the most marginalized and at-risk groups are those who are homeless and/or...

RESOURCE TYPE: Book/E-Book Chapter
PUBLICATION DATE: 2016

Historically speaking, responses to homelessness in Canada have been formed most directly at the local level, most often led by faith-based, volunteer-driven charitable organizations with long histories of serving low-income and unhoused individuals and families. These local and informal voluntary landscapes typically provided basic stopgap services such as emergency shelter and meal programs to homeless populations. Until the late...

RESOURCE TYPE: Book/E-Book Chapter
PUBLICATION DATE: 2016

Over the past decade, most major Canadian municipalities have been involved in the development of formalized systems-level collaborative approaches to addressing homelessness and housing issues. The implementation of such approaches has been widespread and, to some extent, standardized based on the design of ‘community advisory boards’ (CABs) mandated and created by the federal government through the Homelessness Partnering Secretariat (HPS...

RESOURCE TYPE: Book/E-Book Chapter
PUBLICATION DATE: 2016

Since 2011, the Old Brewery Mission (OBM) has been engaged in a partnership with the McGill University Social Development Research Group. The purpose of the partnership is to merge the analytical expertise from a third-party academic institution to the homelessness expertise of a service-driven not-for-profit organization to build research capacity, better understand the homeless population served and improve on service models offered. This...

RESOURCE TYPE: Book/E-Book Chapter
PUBLICATION DATE: 2016

Homelessness is a complex problem that requires analysis tools designed for complex systems. One of these tools is a ‘stock and flow’ analysis. Many communities in Canada have an idea of the number of people presently experiencing homeless, estimated by point-in-time counts or the stock of homeless people. In most areas, relatively little is known about flows into and out of homelessness.

This chapter uses stock and flow analysis to...

RESOURCE TYPE: Book/E-Book Chapter
PUBLICATION DATE: 2016

People living in poverty and/or those who are homeless face many more challenges and obstacles than the average person. This includes their increased vulnerability for poor health, multiple social problems, diminished quality of life, higher morbidity and premature mortality (Guirguis-Young, McNeil & Hwang, 2014;  Mills, C., Zavaleta, D. & Samuel, K., 2014; Phipps, 2003). They also face social exclusion and isolation (Mills...

RESOURCE TYPE: Book/E-Book Chapter
PUBLICATION DATE: 2016

The chapter offers an ethnographic account of three key inter-sectoral relations impacting experiences of homelessness and/or housing stability among youth in Ontario, Canada. Rather than focusing on the delivery of services in the youth homelessness sector, I reveal how things work in other sectors that influence interactions between service providers and youth in the homelessness sector. By granting visibility to the inter-organizational...

RESOURCE TYPE: Book/E-Book Chapter
PUBLICATION DATE: 2016
RESOURCE TYPE: Book/E-Book Chapter
PUBLICATION DATE: 2016

This case study focuses on the Youth Reconnect program located in rural Niagara, Ontario. We present descriptive findings summarizing housing status, access to education and a cost benefit analysis for 239 youth who accessed the Niagara Resource Service for Youth, called the ‘RAFT,’ between May 2013 and April 2014. This report discusses the benefits of integrating social services targeting youth homeless populations and the implications of...

RESOURCE TYPE: Book/E-Book Chapter
PUBLICATION DATE: 2016

This chapter describes the collaborative planning and change process spear-headed by a group of service providers in the city of Hamilton, Ontario: the Street Youth Planning Collaborative (SYPC). The SYPC represents a grassroots-led (or ‘bottom-up’) effort to collectively identify and address the structural factors and individual circumstances influencing the experiences of street-involved youth in the City of Hamilton. In telling the SYPC’s...

RESOURCE TYPE: Book/E-Book Chapter
PUBLICATION DATE: 2016

Youth homelessness in Edmonton has been a growing concern in light of contrasting successes in applying Housing First for the adult homeless population since 2009. This chapter builds upon research on systemic approaches to addressing homelessness by reporting on Homeward Trust’s development of the Community Strategy to End Youth Homelessness in Edmonton, launched in June 2015. This Youth Strategy serves as a roadmap toward enhanced systems...

RESOURCE TYPE: Book/E-Book Chapter
PUBLICATION DATE: 2016

Canada’s northern and remote regions experience unique challenges related to housing and homelessness. As such, there is a need to understand and develop strategies to address housing-related concerns in the North. The diversity of communities across the North demands the tailoring of specific local-level responses to meet diverse needs. Over the past decade, local networks have emerged as a powerful method for governance and development of...

RESOURCE TYPE: Book/E-Book Chapter
PUBLICATION DATE: 2016

Attention to the gender-specific needs of homeless women in Canada’s North is crucial. The complexity of the issues involved warrants a whole system shift in social policy and service delivery, as well as in the way that many individual programs and professionals work. This chapter describes a participatory action research project involving service providers, policy advocates and researchers in the three northern territories who had the goal...

RESOURCE TYPE: Book/E-Book Chapter
PUBLICATION DATE: 2016

Homeless pregnant women have complex health and social service needs that require services from many different agencies in a short period of time. Toronto Public Health’s Homeless At-Risk Prenatal (HARP) team provides intensive prenatal case management to high-risk homeless pregnant women in Toronto, focusing on service coordination as a primary intervention. In-depth interviews were conducted with service providers who work with homeless...

RESOURCE TYPE: Book/E-Book Chapter
PUBLICATION DATE: 2016

At 1011 Lansdowne Avenue in Toronto, a public/private/non-profit partnership model of housing and supports turned around both a once notorious apartment building and the lives of many vulnerable persons. This approach is primarily focused on addressing the needs of single persons with chronic mental health issues and low incomes by offering a wide range of supports. This case study looks at the necessary ingredients of the partnership, the...

RESOURCE TYPE: Book/E-Book Chapter
PUBLICATION DATE: 2016

Solutions involving collaboration, partnership and integration across sectors and systems focused on health, housing and business are powerfully successful in achieving community housing stability among long-term chronically homeless adults – even among those with high and complex needs – and in reducing use of emergency, health and police services.

RESOURCE TYPE: Book/E-Book Chapter
PUBLICATION DATE: 2016

This chapter provides an introduction to the systems approach that developed around a ‘come-as-you-are’ entry portal shelter in Pinellas County, Florida, called Pinellas Safe Harbor. Residents of PSH have access to a variety of services onsite, including master case management intended to ensure that they are receiving the services and supports they need to move forward with their lives, mental health screening and counseling, limited medical...

RESOURCE TYPE: Book/E-Book Chapter
PUBLICATION DATE: 2016

The Good Shepherd Youth Services Community Mental Health Program operates within a framework that prioritizes partnerships while aiming to provide quality care through a transdisciplinary model. The model focuses on triage, assessment and treatment; providing clinical interventions to disenfranchised youth in Hamilton, Ontario. The program has the following key components, which we will describe in this paper: service delivery approach (i.e....

RESOURCE TYPE: Book/E-Book Chapter
PUBLICATION DATE: 2016

While estimating homelessness in Canada has been difficult, it is believed at least 200,000 Canadians experience homelessness each year. What is often missing from research into homelessness in Canada is identification of the specific situations and needs of women experiencing homelessness. This paper identifies the complexity and specific issues for women...

RESOURCE TYPE: Book/E-Book Chapter
PUBLICATION DATE: 2016
RESOURCE TYPE: Book/E-Book Chapter
PUBLICATION DATE: 2016
L’action intersectorielle clinique : l’expérience d’EMRII, une équipe mixte pour les personnes en situation d’itinérance

A research team of sociologists conducted a descriptive case study of the Mobile Reference and Intervention Team for Homeless Individuals (EMRII), an inter-professional and inter-sectional team created by Montreal Police Service (SPVM) and a Health and Social Services Center (CSSS – Jeanne-Mance). The mixed team is an inter...

RESOURCE TYPE: Book/E-Book Chapter
PUBLICATION DATE: 2016

In this chapter, our purpose is to describe the CASH (Centralized Access to Supported Housing) program and provide an overview of the findings and insights from an initial program evaluation. We begin with some background on centralized programs, a description of the CASH program and our approach to evaluation. We then present the findings and discuss their implications and recommendations for improving such programs.

RESOURCE TYPE: Book/E-Book Chapter
PUBLICATION DATE: 2016

The purpose of this research process was to document the Coordinated Access and Assessment (CAA) program’s formative process, and to inform the ongoing development of the CAA in Calgary. Data collection included participant observation at CAA’s storefront location, in relevant internal meetings at the Calgary Homeless Foundation (CHF), and at Placement Committee meetings where clients are matched to programs. It included an extensive review...

RESOURCE TYPE: Book/E-Book Chapter
PUBLICATION DATE: 2016

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