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RESOURCE TYPE: Book/E-Book Chapter
PUBLICATION DATE: 2013

In this chapter we draw on research conducted with 244 homeless youth and discuss the frequent interactions these young people have with law enforcement officials in Toronto and the effect this has on their experiences of being homeless in the city. We argue that the current response to homelessness – that is, one that focuses on emergency services like shelters, drop-in centres, and food programs – does little to prevent and/or move people...

RESOURCE TYPE: Book/E-Book Chapter
PUBLICATION DATE: 2013

This chapter presents a promising practice case study of an innovative training and employment program from Vancouver, British Columbia.

ACCESS BladeRunners is an innovative Vancouver-based program that supports homeless and at-risk youth between the ages of 15 and 30 through a comprehensive training and support program that focuses on creating pathways to jobs in the construction industry. The core goal of the program is to...

RESOURCE TYPE: Book/E-Book Chapter
PUBLICATION DATE: 2013

This chapter presents a promising practice case study of an innovative training and employment program from St. John’s, Newfoundland.

Choices for Youth’s Train for Trades program creates employment opportunities within the construction industry for at-risk and homeless youth in and around the area surrounding St. John’s, Newfoundland and Labrador. The underlying goal for all of Choices’ programs is to help young people obtain...

RESOURCE TYPE: Book/E-Book Chapter
PUBLICATION DATE: 2013

Solutions to homelessness are often considered the responsibility of NGOs, governments, and individuals experiencing homelessness. We at Raising the Roof feel that solutions to homelessness require action across society, including in the private sector. In short, we believe that homelessness is everybody’s business. In this chapter we review some of the major findings from Raising the Roof’s Private Sector Engagement Project, which has two...

RESOURCE TYPE: Book/E-Book Chapter
PUBLICATION DATE: 2013

Homeless youth leave school for a variety of reasons, such as lack of family support, frequent moves between homes and schools, and significant life stress. Without a basic education, youth are at risk of limited employment opportunities and poverty during their adult lives. However, some youth are able to participate in school, despite experiences of homelessness. To better understand factors that may promote school attendance among homeless...

RESOURCE TYPE: Book/E-Book Chapter
PUBLICATION DATE: 2013

In this chapter, we ask a key question: What is the role of employment training programs in helping young people move off the streets? More and more communities struggle with how to enhance the employability of homeless youth, often knowing that traditional employment training programs and supports have not always successfully engaged the most marginal of youth populations.

Our understanding of youth homelessness and employment is...

RESOURCE TYPE: Book/E-Book Chapter
PUBLICATION DATE: 2013

It is widely known that mental health challenges are common in youth who are street-involved. In keeping with the well-documented mental health profile of street youth, our research indicates that these youth have very high levels of mental health challenges, including depression, hopelessness, and self-harm, as well as issues with substance use. Further findings highlight the clear relationship between the stress of homelessness (e.g. being...

RESOURCE TYPE: Book/E-Book Chapter
PUBLICATION DATE: 2013

This chapter provides an overview of the literature on mental health and mental illness among homeless youth, highlighting gaps in the current knowledge base and directions for future inquiry. First, the current literature on mental health and mental illness is briefly reviewed. This review includes commentary on what is understood about the course of mental health problems from pre-street to street contexts. The second section of the chapter...

RESOURCE TYPE: Book/E-Book Chapter
PUBLICATION DATE: 2013

This chapter argues that drug policy in Canada is moving in the wrong direction with the exclusion of harm reduction from the 2007 National Anti-Drug Strategy. Harm reduction is an important public health initiative for promoting the safety and well-being of marginalized substance users, including those who are young and homeless. A small qualitative, interview study of homeless youth and service providers conducted in Ottawa, Ontario is...

RESOURCE TYPE: Book/E-Book Chapter
PUBLICATION DATE: 2013

This chapter draws together research findings on co-use of multiple drugs and co-occurring mental health problems from the Youth Pathways Project. One hundred and fifty street youth in Toronto (2005-2006) were interviewed for this study and were split evenly by gender. Current use of alcohol and cannabis was greater among male than female street-involved youth (about 80% and 60% respectively); rates for other drugs (hallucinogens,...

RESOURCE TYPE: Book/E-Book Chapter
PUBLICATION DATE: 2013

Drawing on results from the Calgary Youth, Health and the Street Study, this chapter describes the use of street and health services by youth with different levels of street involvement, and also describes the views of youth on those services. The Youth, Health and the Street Study was a community-based research study (including 355 pencil-and-paper surveys and qualitative interviews with 42 street-involved youth) conducted to help services...

RESOURCE TYPE: Book/E-Book Chapter
PUBLICATION DATE: 2013

A number of risky behaviours or experiences are associated with sexual exploitation among street-involved youth. The challenge is trying to determine the timing and pattern of these experiences. For example, exploited youth often report heavy alcohol and drug use – but does that alcohol and drug use eventually force them into exploitation as a way to support their use, or do they turn to alcohol and drugs to cope with the shame and distress...

RESOURCE TYPE: Book/E-Book Chapter
PUBLICATION DATE: 2013

This chapter begins with an examination of the nutritional vulnerability of homeless youth and the many strategies they employ in their efforts to satisfy basic food needs. We also explore the meaning of food for youth who are homeless and unable to choose food they prefer. This section of our chapter draws heavily from dietary intake assessments (analyses of the level of nutrition in a diet), survey interviews, and in-depth qualitative...

RESOURCE TYPE: Book/E-Book Chapter
PUBLICATION DATE: 2013

This analysis explores the case study of a Nova Scotia supportive housing development (Supportive Housing for Young Mothers – SHYM) designed for young mothers and their children. Based on two rounds of in-depth interviews, conducted six months apart, with 10 tenants, four staff members and five Board members, in addition to tenants’ completion of the World Health Organization Quality of Life survey (WHOQOL-BREF), this research highlights how...

RESOURCE TYPE: Book/E-Book Chapter
PUBLICATION DATE: 2013

In this chapter, we present the initial findings from a large, ongoing, mixed-methods (i.e. combines statistical and narrative methods) study, called Youth Matters in London: Mental Health, Addiction and Homelessness, involving 187 homeless youth living with diagnosed or undiagnosed mental illness and/or an addiction. Participating youth are being followed over a period of time in order to gain insight into their preferences regarding housing...

RESOURCE TYPE: Book/E-Book Chapter
PUBLICATION DATE: 2013

This chapter begins with an overview of current research, which points to a relationship between child protection services and youth homelessness. I describe how child protection services in Canada are organized structurally, focusing on institutional practices and policy that influence a young person’s ability to maintain safe, adequate, and stable housing after leaving “care.” I use ethnographic data from community-based institutional...

RESOURCE TYPE: Book/E-Book Chapter
PUBLICATION DATE: 2013

In this chapter I will report on a longitudinal study of homeless youth in Niagara, a region in Ontario with a unique mix of rural, small town and urban settings. Forty homeless youth participated in the study and 30 youth were followed for an average of 7 months.The findings from this study help examine the causes of youth homelessness, while the characteristics of homeless youth in Canada are reviewed in order to evaluate how well we are...

RESOURCE TYPE: Book/E-Book Chapter
PUBLICATION DATE: 2013

This paper explores the ways in which young people across Canada attempt to get off the streets. The goal of the research was to identify the strategies that young people use and challenges they face in getting off the street in order to inform service providers and policy makers of the experience of transitioning to housing. Findings suggest that there are several connected dimensions to the process of leaving the streets behind including...

RESOURCE TYPE: Book/E-Book Chapter
PUBLICATION DATE: 2013

Young people become homeless largely because of challenges they experience within their families. Conflicts – whether related to abuse, mental health, or addictions issues of young people or family members – often lead young people to the streets. While for many homeless youth, relations with family members are profoundly damaged and irredeemable, this paper argues for an approach to working with street youth that focuses on the potential...

RESOURCE TYPE: Book/E-Book Chapter
PUBLICATION DATE: 2013

Youth homelessness is a seemingly intractable problem in Canada. In communities across the country, people are increasingly aware of the sight of young people who are without a home, sleeping in parks, sitting on sidewalks or asking for money. What do we know about these young people, and what should we do? Youth Homelessness in Canada: Implications for Policy and Practice aims to fill a gap in the information available on this important...

RESOURCE TYPE: Book/E-Book Chapter
PUBLICATION DATE: 2010

Harm reduction encompasses interventions, programmes and policies that seek to reduce the health, social and economic harms of drug use to individuals, communities and societies. We envisage harm reduction as a ‘combination intervention’, made up of a package of interventions tailored to local setting and need, which give primary emphasis to reducing the harms of drug use. We note the enhanced impact potential derived from delivering multiple...

RESOURCE TYPE: Book/E-Book Chapter
PUBLICATION DATE: 2012

This chapter examines the educational barriers that homeless youth face in one large urban area. The text reviews the McKinney–Vento Homeless Assistance Act and discusses how California has attempted to follow the federal mandates, and the implications for Los Angeles. The chapter utilizes interviews with 120 homeless youth and 45 policymakers, school counselors, and after-school program coordinators in Los Angeles to understand how youth...

RESOURCE TYPE: Book/E-Book Chapter
PUBLICATION DATE: 1993

Ethnographic studies of poor, multigenerational black families in northeast, southeast, and midwest parts of the US have identified clear family scripts (kinscripts) that prescribe patterns of family interaction. The kinscripts framework can offer social scientists and policymakers important information on the ways individuals and families negotiate, construct, and reconstruct the life course. (Authors)

JOURNAL NAME: Mental Illnesses – Evaluation, Treatments and Implications
RESOURCE TYPE: Book/E-Book Chapter
PUBLICATION DATE: 2012

In Sweden, the prevailing model for combating homelessness has been, and to a large extent still is, the disciplining staircase model, which stresses absolute sobriety as a criterion for eligibility for municipally organized special housing. The model builds on a view of the homeless as individuals incapable of independent living, albeit ones who are (potentially) able to become capable of independent living and (at least theoretically) of...

RESOURCE TYPE: Book/E-Book Chapter
PUBLICATION DATE: 2011

In the post-World War II era, the federal government was embarrassed into helping NWT residents meet basic social needs, as the international spotlight highlighted the fact that Ottawa was neglecting the North. The federal government had little choice but to step up its efforts to meet social needs. As the Harper government vies for a physical presence in North in an effort to make the most of geopolitical opportunity, history may repeat...

RESOURCE TYPE: Book/E-Book Chapter
PUBLICATION DATE: 1993

There has been scant treatment given to understanding the lives of teenage girls in Ireland, outside of studies of education. In this chapter, the author examines female public youth culture; that is, what teenage girls do away from their schools or workplace, and outside of their homes. The female teenagers who were the focus of this study lived in a mixed middle/working class parish in the city of Cork. What will be revealed is the degree...

RESOURCE TYPE: Book/E-Book Chapter
PUBLICATION DATE: 1995

Are disputes ever really resolved, or do people need to find ways of accommodating them and living with the consequences? Can dispute settlement procedures at the local level be transferred to wider environments? In attempting to answer these questions, some of the foremost specialists in the anthropology of law and disputing behaviour examine how people in a variety of social settings, ranging from Ireland to East Africa, deal with...

RESOURCE TYPE: Book/E-Book Chapter
PUBLICATION DATE: 2004

At any given moment, about 3 million American women, men, and children are homeless. And another 5 million Americans spend over 50% of their incomes on housing, meaning that one missed paycheck, one health crisis, or one unpaid utility bill can push them out the door into homelessness. Homelessness is one of the major social problems and personal and family tragedies of the contemporary world. No community, city, or nation is immune and...

RESOURCE TYPE: Book/E-Book Chapter
PUBLICATION DATE: 2009

The chapter “Challenges and Expectations in the Canadian North" by Richard J. Van Loon is available in the book "Northern Exposure: Peoples, Powers and Prospects in Canada’s North" by Frances Abele, Thomas J. Courchene, F. Leslie Seidle and France St-Hilaire (eds.)

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