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RESOURCE TYPE: Book/E-Book Chapter
PUBLICATION DATE: 2018

“Street children” are an underprivileged group that is visible in public places of urban areas in developing countries. These children engage in informal economic activities to make a living for themselves and their families. They are found in every corner of the globe, but are more visible in developing countries in Africa, South Asia, and parts of Latin America (Thomas de Benítez, 2011). There is debate about the size of this population,...

RESOURCE TYPE: Book/E-Book Chapter
PUBLICATION DATE: 2018

After decades of fragmentation within the community-based child and youth mental health sector, there is an emerging trend and understanding of how cross-sectoral partnerships and integration between organizations can improve mental health outcomes for children, youth, and young adults. This chapter describes the benefits of these partnerships and key considerations in developing them. It also presents a case study of a successful partnership...

RESOURCE TYPE: Book/E-Book Chapter
PUBLICATION DATE: 2018

Each year, 1.5 million to 3 million youth in the United States experience homelessness1 (Toro, Lesperance, & Braciszewski, 2011). They are considered to be one of the most marginalized groups in the country. Among the many challenges they face are acquiring health care, employment, and stable housing. It is becoming increasingly important to consider how to use information and communication technologies (ICT) to increase service...

RESOURCE TYPE: Book/E-Book Chapter
PUBLICATION DATE: 2018

Across contexts, peer workers and peer mentors are becoming an increasingly important resource in delivering youth-focused programming for young people who are homeless or street involved. Peer work has been established across a number of practice areas, including public health, addictions, education, and community-based research. The most considerable development in the role has been within the mental health sector, where peer work is...

RESOURCE TYPE: Book/E-Book Chapter
PUBLICATION DATE: 2018

 Beautiful trouble makers who remember, resist and reimagine. 

—Min Sook Lee, OCAD University, Art and Social Change 

Offering Crys a ride “home” after a jewelry-making workshop led me to a makeshift “shanty town” under the Bathurst Street bridge in Toronto. I was struck by the vivid colour and detail in this woven compilation of blankets,...

RESOURCE TYPE: Book/E-Book Chapter
PUBLICATION DATE: 2018

More than two million youth in the United States are homeless at some time each year (Whitbeck, 2009). They often have histories of depression, complex trauma, substance abuse, and physical and sexual abuse—all of which make obtaining and maintaining competitive employment difficult. Epidemiologic data indicate that 26% meet the clinical criteria for major depression, 35% have attempted suicide, and 72% use illegal substances to cope (...

RESOURCE TYPE: Book/E-Book Chapter
PUBLICATION DATE: 2018

Much of what is known about youth who are homeless is obtained from those engaged through service programs, such as drop-in centres or shelters. This means that much less is known about youth experiencing homelessness who are not engaged in services as they are excluded from most studies. This is a significant concern because some reports indicate that youth who are not connected to services represent the majority of youth who are...

RESOURCE TYPE: Book/E-Book Chapter
PUBLICATION DATE: 2018

It is well established that youth experiencing homelessness face many challenges with their mental health. For example, a literature review of the topic found that 30%–40% of youth who are homeless experience major depression, bipolar disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and substance use (Kidd, 2013). A small number also experience psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia, although this incidence is believed to be larger than that...

ORGANIZATION: United Way
RESOURCE TYPE: Report
PUBLICATION DATE: 2018
A Vision for Tomorrow

On any given night, more than 6,000 Canadian youths are homeless. Young people account for one in five of the people living in Canada’s homeless shelters. In Kingston the figure was more acute in 2013. One in three shelter residents here were between the ages of 15 and 24.*

To help these vulnerable young people put their homelessness behind them and live safe, productive lives, the United Way Kingston, Frontenac,...

RESOURCE TYPE: Book/E-Book Chapter
PUBLICATION DATE: 2018

According to many Canadian surveys and studies, workplace stress is a serious health and economic burden, with estimated costs between $3.2 billion and $11.7 billion per year (Hassard et al., 2014; Mental Health Commission of Canada, 2010). Employees who experience high workplace demands, low control, high effort, and low reward are more likely to suffer adverse consequences of a psychologically unsafe workplace (Great West Life Centre for...

RESOURCE TYPE: Book/E-Book Chapter
PUBLICATION DATE: 2018
RESOURCE TYPE: Book/E-Book Chapter
PUBLICATION DATE: 2018

Young people who are homeless experience converging and amplified risk due to their developmental stage, as well as the stress, risk behaviours, and associated trauma that often accompany becoming or being homeless. They tend to be immersed in environments characterized by multiple adversities over their lifetime and it is generally agreed that the mental health of these youth is poorer than that of youth who are housed. Most youth report that...

RESOURCE TYPE: Book/E-Book Chapter
PUBLICATION DATE: 2018

The majority of families that are homeless are headed by single mothers who have an average of two young children in their care. These mothers are especially vulnerable
because they struggle to meet the basic needs of their children and themselves. In addition to the stress of homelessness, they also often struggle with substance use, and physical and mental health problems (Slesnick, Glassman, Katafiasz, & Collins, 2012). Moreover,...

RESOURCE TYPE: Book/E-Book Chapter
PUBLICATION DATE: 2018

People of African descent have a long, troubled, yet inspiring history in Canada, marked by tensions between anti-black racism and resistance, and by the establishment of a dynamic and diverse diaspora. In this chapter, we discuss how race and racism influence the experiences of street involvement and mental health among African Canadian youth. We also offer a few analytical and practical tools for practitioners to consider for engaging...

RESOURCE TYPE: Book/E-Book Chapter
PUBLICATION DATE: 2018

There is a growing body of literature on homelessness in Canada, with research addressing such areas as youth at risk of homelessness, homelessness among adults and families, and homelessness among immigrants and refugees. Low-income groups are most likely to experience housing issues and homelessness, with visible minorities, recent immigrants, and single parents disproportionately represented (Polanyi et al., 2016). The national At Home /...

RESOURCE TYPE: E-book
PUBLICATION DATE: 2018

As a wealthy nation, Canada enjoys one of the highest standards of living in the world. Yet there are truths about our country that are unfathomable: we have an unaddressed homelessness crisis among lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, questioning, and two-spirit (LGBTQ2S) youth; widespread homophobia and transphobia are a daily reality; and, because of this, LGBTQ2S youth experiencing homelessness often report feeling safer on the...

RESOURCE TYPE: Book/E-Book Chapter
PUBLICATION DATE: 2018

Indigenous peoples is a term used in Canada to describe three distinct cultural groups: First Nations (status and non-status Indians), Métis, and Inuit. There are approximately 1.4 million Indigenous people in Canada, representing about 4% of the country’s total population (Statistics Canada, 2009). Over 40% are under age 24, and 28% are under 14 (Statistics Canada, 2013). The Indigenous population has become highly urbanized. Since the 1970s...

RESOURCE TYPE: Book/E-Book Chapter
PUBLICATION DATE: 2018
RESOURCE TYPE: Book/E-Book Chapter
PUBLICATION DATE: 2018

Youth who are under-housed or street involved can experience crises that include injury by violence, aggressive behaviours, and thoughts of suicide. These crises can be challenging and frightening not only for the youth experiencing them, but also for service providers who work with these young people. Using a strength-based approach during a crisis helps youth develop personal agency. Personal agency refers to the sense of having control...

RESOURCE TYPE: Book/E-Book Chapter
PUBLICATION DATE: 2018

Adolescents who access shelters have usually experienced high levels of family conflict and a lack of family support (Ferguson, 2009; Tyler, 2006). Their home environments are often characterized by instability, including a lack of parental protection, chaos in the household, and substance use among family members. Moreover, these adolescents often experience maltreatment, including verbal, physical, and sexual abuse, as well as emotional...

RESOURCE TYPE: Book/E-Book Chapter
PUBLICATION DATE: 2018

Youth homelessness is a major public health problem that garnered increased interest and focus in recent years in Canada and the United States. The connections between youth homelessness and child welfare, foster care, and juvenile justice have been well established (Bender, Yang, Ferguson, & Thompson, 2015; Dworsky & Courtney, 2009; Zlotnick, 2009). Similarly, service providers and policy makers have become aware of the high rates of...

RESOURCE TYPE: Book/E-Book Chapter
PUBLICATION DATE: 2018

Mindfulness involves bringing attention to what is happening within us and around us in moment-to-moment experiences, without labelling experiences as good versus bad, and refraining from reviewing the past or planning for the future (Kabat-Zinn, 1994). Mindfulness practice is found to be an effective approach for improving well-being among adults, with increasing support for its use in enhancing regulatory capacities among vulnerable youth...

RESOURCE TYPE: E-book
PUBLICATION DATE: 2018

It is well known that youth who are homeless experience a high degree of emotional and psychological distress (McCay et al., 2010). Mental health challenges such as depression, anxiety, and self-harm are often linked with difficulties regulating emotion on a day-to-day basis. Taken as a whole, these challenges often interfere with the capacity of street-involved youth to engage in the full spectrum of health and social services intended to...

RESOURCE TYPE: Book/E-Book Chapter
PUBLICATION DATE: 2018

At this year’s Canadian Alliance to End Homelessness conference, I had the good fortune to hear Jesse Thistle’s remarkable story about growing up in Brampton, Ontario, and his search to find meaning for himself and come to terms with the trauma of his family. Jesse is 40 years old and of Métis/Cree/Scots descent. His work as a historian and advocate around issues of Indigenous People’s intergenerational trauma has earned him the highly...

RESOURCE TYPE: Book/E-Book Chapter
PUBLICATION DATE: 2018

The book contains four sections covering a range of topics that service providers inquire about most often. Part 1: Approaches and Interventions describes specific approaches to addressing the mental health and substance use challenges of youth experiencing homelessness. Topics include the community reinforcement approach and motivational enhancement therapy, dialectical behaviour therapy, mindfulness approaches, trauma-informed care,...

JOURNAL NAME: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ECONOMICS AND FINANCE STUDIES
RESOURCE TYPE: Journal
PUBLICATION DATE: 2017
Abstract 

The campaign to end poverty by 2030, as advocated by the World Bank, has multifaceted components. Food security and abject poverty have received more attention; however, little attention has been focused on housing insecurity. This is important, especially given the fact that it is widely acknowledged that housing satiates an essential human need for physical security, dignity and prosperity, among other things. Housing, for some...

ORGANIZATION: Campaign 2000
RESOURCE TYPE: Report
PUBLICATION DATE: 2017
Introduction  As Canada’s 150th year since confederation closes, it is time to usher in a new poverty-free era. Decades of neo-liberal austerity have eroded Canada’s progress towards a strong social safety net. With over 1.2 million children and families in poverty, a transformational response to the complexity of poverty is overdue. It is time for a new social contract with a renewed foundation built on equity and dignity. The goal must be...
RESOURCE TYPE: Thesis/Dissertation
PUBLICATION DATE: 2017

In this paper based dissertation, experiences of people who are/were homeless in Japan were explored using narrative inquiry. Treating narratives as storied phenomena under study, narrative inquiry is considered both as a research methodology and as a way of understanding human experiences (Clandinin & Connelly, 2000). Through engaging in weekly face-to-face conversations over three months in Japan, the participants and I slowly co-...

RESOURCE TYPE: Thesis/Dissertation
PUBLICATION DATE: 2017
Abstract  Working in a homeless youth shelter in a major Eastern Canadian city, 35 homeless males and females, aged 16-24, engaged in a participatory action research (PAR) project over a one-year period. In the study, the participants systematically brainstormed 107 potential research themes pertaining to their experiences, concerns, and interests in youth homelessness. From these themes, the youth prioritized stereotyping and stigmatization,...
JOURNAL NAME: Journal of Experimental Criminology
RESOURCE TYPE: Journal
PUBLICATION DATE: 2018


Abstract Objective

To evaluate the effect of emergency winter homeless shelters on property crimes in the nearby communities.

Methods

Every winter between 2009 and 2016, the City of Vancouver, Canada opened shelters to protect the homeless from harsh winter conditions. The city opened 19 shelters, but only five to nine of them were open in any one winter. Using the variation in timing and...

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