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JOURNAL NAME: Journal of Urban Health
RESOURCE TYPE: Journal
PUBLICATION DATE: 2007

Whereas considerable attention has been devoted to achieving high levels of influenza immunization, the importance of this issue is magnified by concern over pandemic influenza. Most recommendations for vaccine administration address high risk groups such as the elderly and those with chronic diseases, but coverage for hard-to-reach (HTR) populations has had less attention. HTR populations include minorities but also include other primarily...

JOURNAL NAME: AIDS and Behavior
RESOURCE TYPE: Journal
PUBLICATION DATE: 2007

Homelessness and unstable housing have been associated with HIV risk behavior and poorer health among persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA), yet prior research has not tested causal associations. This paper describes the challenges, methods, and baseline sample of the Housing and Health Study, a longitudinal, multi-site, randomized controlled trial investigating the effects of providing immediate rental housing assistance to PLWHA who were...

JOURNAL NAME: AIDS and Behavior
RESOURCE TYPE: Journal
PUBLICATION DATE: 2007

The stability of living situation was examined as a predictor of young people's HIV-related sexual and drug use acts two years after leaving home for the first time. Newly homeless youth aged 12-20 years were recruited in Los Angeles County, California, U.S.A. (n = 261) and Melbourne, Australia (n = 165) and followed longitudinally at 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Their family history of moves and the type and frequency of moves over the...

JOURNAL NAME: AIDS and Behavior
RESOURCE TYPE: Journal
PUBLICATION DATE: 2007

Using cross-sectional analysis we examined residential status and associated differences in HIV risk behaviors among 3266 youth IDUs enrolled in an HIV prevention trial. a three-level outcome (homeless (37%), equivocally housed (17%), housed (46%)) was defined based in responses to two questions assessing subjective and objective criteria for homelessness were having lived in an out-of-home placement, been thrown out of the home or in...

JOURNAL NAME: AIDS Care
RESOURCE TYPE: Journal
PUBLICATION DATE: 2007

While there are reports of the impact of specific interventions designed to reduce HIV drug and sexual risk behaviors, there are few reports of the impact of HIV behaviors, there are few reports of the impact of HIV interventions in a community-based sample. We report on baseline data from a sample of African American crack smokers who were about to participate in an intervention designed to reduce HIV-related risk behaviors. The majority...

JOURNAL NAME: AIDS Care
RESOURCE TYPE: Journal
PUBLICATION DATE: 2007

The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of homelessness on the costs and patterns of hospitalisation in patients with HIV/AIDS. A retrospective longitudinal study design, based on medical records data covering 2,768 person-years of observation between 1997 and 2003 on patients with HIV/AIDS, was employed. A contextual measure of neighbourhood socioeconomic status (SES) was also used to uncover differences among low- and high-SES...

JOURNAL NAME: AIDS Care
RESOURCE TYPE: Journal
PUBLICATION DATE: 2007

We examined the social network composition among newly homeless youth over time and assessed how pro-social and problematic peers affected sexual and drug-using HIV/AIDS risk-behaviours among 183 youth in Los Angeles County, California. The percentage of newly homeless youth who reported that 'most' or 'all' of their friends were attending school, had jobs, and got along with their families was 73%, 24%, and 50%...

JOURNAL NAME: AIDS and Behavior
RESOURCE TYPE: Journal
PUBLICATION DATE: 2007

We examined the prevalence and risks associated with interpersonal (physical and sexual) abuse among HIV-seropositive homeless or unstably housed adults. Data were obtained from the Housing and Health Study of participants living in Baltimore, Chicago, and Los Angeles (n = 644). We used logistic regression to identify risks associated with abuse. About 77% of men and 86% of women reported ever experiencing abuse. Women were at greater risk...

JOURNAL NAME: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
RESOURCE TYPE: Journal
PUBLICATION DATE: 2007

The degree of substance-induced syndrome (SIS) was evaluated in 5,116 acutely hospitalized suicidal psychiatric inpatients. Admission and discharge severity ratings were made by academic attendings using structured forms. Outcome variables analyzed include ratings of psychiatric symptom severity on admission and discharge, length of stay, severity of SIS, and severity of alcohol/drug problems. Suicidal inpatients rated with a high degree of...

JOURNAL NAME: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
RESOURCE TYPE: Journal
PUBLICATION DATE: 2007

Homeless shelters provide a unique opportunity to intervene with occupants who have substance abuse problems, as not addressing these issues may lead to continuation of problems playing a contributing role in homelessness. Attempts to implement Contingency Management (CM) with this population have often been complex, costly, and not straightforward to replicate in community settings. We conducted a randomized trial evaluating a simple, low-...

JOURNAL NAME: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
RESOURCE TYPE: Journal
PUBLICATION DATE: 2007

Case management has been implemented in substance abuse treatment to improve (cost-) effectiveness, but controversy exists about its potential to realize this objective. A systematic and comprehensive review of peer-reviewed articles (n = 48) published between 1993 and 2003 is presented, focusing on the effects of different models of case management among various substance-abusing populations. Results show that several studies have reported...

JOURNAL NAME: Journal of General Internal Medicine
RESOURCE TYPE: Journal
PUBLICATION DATE: 2007

Context Although office-based opioid treatment with buprenorphine (OBOT-B) has been successfully implemented in primary care settings in the US, its use has not been reported in homeless patients. Objective To characterize the feasibility of OBOT-B in homeless relative to housed patients. Design A retrospective record review examining treatment failure, drug use, utilization of substance abuse treatment services, and intensity of clinical...

JOURNAL NAME: AIDS and Behavior
RESOURCE TYPE: Journal
PUBLICATION DATE: 2007

Although infection with Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) frequently co-exist, there has been little research to determine the effects of HIV/HCV co-infection on health-related quality of life (HRQOL). We performed a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from 216 participants enrolled in a community based study of HIV-infected homeless and marginally housed individuals, using multivariable linear regression...

JOURNAL NAME: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
RESOURCE TYPE: Journal
PUBLICATION DATE: 2006

BACKGROUND: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) remain common in the United States. One contributor to this persistent problem is pockets of infection among persons who may not have regular access to health care, a group that includes those who seek services at shelters. OBJECTIVE: The goals of the study were to: 1) determine the acceptability of STI testing among individuals seeking services at shelters in 2 midsized southeastern cities...

JOURNAL NAME: Social Science and Medicine
RESOURCE TYPE: Journal
PUBLICATION DATE: 2007

Large racial disparities in completion rates from substance abuse treatment programs in urban settings remain largely unexplained, although evidence is accumulating that neighborhood conditions may influence individual substance abuse patterns and consequences. Understanding racial disparities in alcohol treatment completion, in particular, is crucial to resolving health disparities because racial/ethnic minorities bear a disproportionate...

JOURNAL NAME: Medical Care
RESOURCE TYPE: Journal
PUBLICATION DATE: 2006

Background: Many persons with HIV infection do not receive consistent ambulatory medical care and are excluded from studies of patients in medical care. However, these hard-to-reach groups are important to study because they may be in greatest need of services.

Objective: This study compared the sociodemographic, clinical, and health care utilization characteristics of a multisite sample of HIV-positive persons who were hard to reach...

JOURNAL NAME: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
RESOURCE TYPE: Journal
PUBLICATION DATE: 2007

Background: The mental and physical health consequences of intimate partner violence (IPV) have been well established, yet little is known about the impact of violence on a woman’s ability to obtain and maintain housing. This cross-sectional study examines the relationship between recent IPV and housing instability among a representative sample of California women. It is expected that women who have experienced IPV will be at increased risk...

JOURNAL NAME: Psychiatric Quarterly
RESOURCE TYPE: Journal
PUBLICATION DATE: 2007

Public support payments may facilitate exit from homelessness for persons with mental illness. We examined data from 10,641 homeless veterans contacted from October 1, 1995 to September 30, 2002 in a collaborative outreach program designed to facilitate access to Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) disability benefits. Those who were awarded benefits (22% of contacted veterans) were more likely to report disability, poor to fair self-rated...

JOURNAL NAME: Psychiatric Quarterly
RESOURCE TYPE: Journal
PUBLICATION DATE: 2007

Public support payments may facilitate exit from homelessness for persons with mental illness. We examined data from 10,641 homeless veterans contacted from October 1, 1995 to September 30, 2002 in a collaborative outreach program designed to facilitate access to Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) disability benefits. Those who were awarded benefits (22% of contacted veterans) were more likely to report disability, poor to fair self-rated...

JOURNAL NAME: Journal of Urban Health
RESOURCE TYPE: Journal
PUBLICATION DATE: 2007

Increasingly, geographic information systems employing spatial data are being used to identify communities with poorer health care status. Since health care indicators are strongly linked to income, could these data, usually based on adult indicators, be used for pediatric health care need? We hypothesized that individual-level indicators such as quality of life scales (QOL) would be better than community-level indicators at identifying...

JOURNAL NAME: Health Psychology
RESOURCE TYPE: Journal
PUBLICATION DATE: 2007

OBJECTIVE: To assess predictors of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) completion by using structural equation modeling (SEM) among homeless adults, a group at great risk for LTBI and active tuberculosis (TB). LTBI therapy is effective in stemming the progression to active TB, yet treatment adherence among homeless persons is difficult to attain. DESIGN: By using SEM, the authors assessed predictors of LTBI completion among a sample of...

JOURNAL NAME: Public Health Nursing
RESOURCE TYPE: Journal
PUBLICATION DATE: 2007

Objective: To identify cases of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) and improve access to TB treatment among the inner-city homeless. (Authors)

Design: This is an intervention study describing the impact of a public health program on TB prevention and control.

Sample: The target population for the project was residents and recent graduates of a residential addictions recovery program in a faith-based, inner-city mission.

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JOURNAL NAME: Administration and Policy in Mental Health
RESOURCE TYPE: Journal
PUBLICATION DATE: 2006

Continuity of care is a concern for mental health clients in the post deinstitutionalization era of community care. A proposed solution is systems integration. This paper reviewed research on systems integration, focusing on continuity of care outcomes. A positive association between systems integration and client continuity of care was consistently demonstrated. Better results were obtained in systems characterized by stronger management...

JOURNAL NAME: Administration and Policy in Mental Health
RESOURCE TYPE: Journal
PUBLICATION DATE: 2007

Objective: Few studies have examined barriers to physical and mental healthcare among homeless mentally adults. Methods: This study examined physical and mental healthcare barriers reported by 154 recently homeless mentally ill persons. Results: Practical concerns (e.g. transportation and cost) were key components of barriers to accessing general medical care among uninsured men with poorer overall mental health, PTSD, and STD infections...

JOURNAL NAME: Addiction
RESOURCE TYPE: Journal
PUBLICATION DATE: 2006

Background One key structural dimension in the distribution of drug-related harm associated with injecting drug use is the injecting environment. Epidemiological evidence associates elevated blood-borne viral risk with injecting in ‘public’ and ‘semipublic’ environments. Yet the quality of evidence on public injecting and related viral risk is variable, and is lacking in many countries such as the United Kingdom. Aim This commentary...

JOURNAL NAME: American Journal of Health Promotion
RESOURCE TYPE: Journal
PUBLICATION DATE: 2006

Purpose. To investigate the impact of the shelter environment and surrounding community on lifestyle factors influencing the health of homeless families. Design and Setting. Seven focus groups were conducted at two homeless shelters serving families in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Food resources and food prices at convenience stores were recorded within a five-block radius of shelters. Subjects. Low-income parents of children aged 3–12 years (n...

JOURNAL NAME: American Family Physician
RESOURCE TYPE: Journal
PUBLICATION DATE: 2006

In 2004, the National Guidelines Clearinghouse placed eight guidelines from the National Health Care for the Homeless Council on its Web site. Seven of the guidelines are on specific disease processes and one is on general care. In addition to straightforward clinical decision making, the guidelines contain medical information specific to patients who are homeless. These guidelines have been endorsed by dozens of physicians who spend a large...

JOURNAL NAME: Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior
RESOURCE TYPE: Journal
PUBLICATION DATE: 2006

OBJECTIVE: To determine inner city American Indians' perceptions of diabetes; find out how they manage their disease; and identify what health care improvements may be necessary for this population. DESIGN: Eight focus group discussions conducted with diabetic inner city American Indian adults. SETTING: Focus group discussions led by moderator using open-ended questions with prompts. PARTICIPANTS: Eligibility criteria include age...

JOURNAL NAME: Cyberpsychology and Behavior
RESOURCE TYPE: Journal
PUBLICATION DATE: 2006

There has been a growing interest in using the Internet to access a variety of populations for prevention education and health care. It is not clear that this is viable for homeless and other marginalized populations. The purpose of this study was to describe Internet access and use among a sample of homeless and indigent drug users. A brief questionnaire was developed to assess computer ownership, use, email, and Internet access and use....

JOURNAL NAME: Journal of Behavioral Health Services and Reserach
RESOURCE TYPE: Journal
PUBLICATION DATE: 2006

The Expanded Behavioral Model for Vulnerable Populations was used to examine the predisposing, enabling, and need factors associated with mental health service use in a homeless adolescent sample (N?=?688). Among all youth, 32% perceived a need for help with mental health problems and 15% met Brief-Symptom Inventory (BSI) criteria for emotional distress. The rate of mental health service use in our sample was 32%. One enabling factor, having...

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