Cooperation refers to expressions of interest and support between organizations. While the term, collaboration signals a commitment to working together, cooperation is often limited to inter-organizational communication.
Cooperation requires an active program of communication and information sharing between organizations. Cooperation can be facilitated by an agreement to reciprocate referrals across an organizational context.
Cooperation can be interpreted as a largely bottom-up or grassroots approach to integration; partnership tools such as memoranda of understanding can formalize cooperation.