Shadow Economies Economic Survival Strategies Of Toronto Immigrant Communities

This study looks at how newcomers survive poor labour market access, adverse working conditions, and the broader conditions that make them vulnerable to exploitation. It also looks at the resiliency of newcomers and how they may build new economic opportunities for themselves when conventional ones are denied. This is a story of economic survival and how people cope in hard times inside the shadow economy.

Publication Date: 
Toronto, ON, Canada